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Chemical Economics Handbook

Sulfuric Acid

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary7
Summary8
Introduction10
Physical properties and grades11
Manufacturing processes12
Sulfur dioxide production12
Elemental sulfur12
Smelter off-gases and pyrites13
Stack gases13
Hydrogen sulfide13
Spent acid or sulfuric acid sludges14
Other14
Sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid14
Contact process14
Chamber process15
Refortified or reused sulfuric acid15
Environmental issues16
Supply and demand by region17
World17
Capacity17
Salient statistics19
Production20
Consumption22
Trade26
North America29
Producing companies29
Capacity34
United States35
Canada36
Mexico36
Salient statistics36
Production37
Consumption38
Trade39
United States41
Salient statistics41
Production42
Consumption43
Fertilizer use45
Wet-process phosphoric acid46
Normal superphosphate47
Metallurgical applications47
Ore processing48
Iron and steel industry48
Other49
Petroleum alkylation49
Methyl methacrylate51
Ammonium sulfate and caprolactam51
Aluminum sulfate52
Hydrofluoric acid52
Pulp and paper53
Batteries53
Surface-active agents54
Cellulosic fibers and plastics54
Titanium dioxide56
Water treatment56
Hydrochloric acid/sodium and potassium sulfate56
Electric utilities57
Chlorine drying57
Chrome chemicals57
Citric acid57
Boric acid57
Resorcinol58
Furfural58
Alcohols58
Phenol58
Miscellaneous58
Price59
Trade62
Canada63
Salient statistics63
Production63
Consumption64
Trade65
Mexico66
Salient statistics66
Production67
Consumption67
Trade68
Latin America69
Producing companies69
Capacity73
Salient statistics74
Production74
Consumption75
Price77
Trade77
Western Europe79
Producing companies79
Capacity83
Salient statistics85
Production85
Consumption86
Fertilizer use 88
Chemical use 89
Industrial use 91
Price 91
Trade 93
Central Europe 95
Producing companies 95
Capacity 98
Salient statistics 99
Production 99
Consumption 100
Fertilizer use 101
Chemical use 102
Industrial use 103
Price 104
Trade 105
Eastern Europe 108
Producing companies 108
Capacity 111
Salient statistics 113
Production 113
Consumption 114
Fertilizer use 115
Chemical use 116
Industrial use 117
Price 118
Trade 119
Middle East 121
Producing companies 121
Capacity 124
Salient statistics 125
Production 125
Consumption 126
Fertilizer use 127
Chemical use 128
Industrial use 129
Price 129
Trade 130
Africa 132
Producing companies 132
Capacity 136
Salient statistics 138
Production 138
Consumption 139
Fertilizer use 140
Chemical use 141
Industrial use 142
Price 142
Trade 143
China 145
Producing companies 145
Salient statistics 153
Production 153
Consumption 154
Fertilizer use 155
Chemical and miscellaneous use 155
Titanium dioxide 155
Rayon 155
Hydrofluoric acid 155
Dicalcium phosphate 156
Citric acid 156
Sulfonated surfactants 156
Methyl methacrylate 156
Aluminum sulfate 156
Sodium dichromate 156
Miscellaneous use 156
Price 157
Trade 158
Japan 159
Producing companies 159
Salient statistics 160
Production 161
Consumption 161
Fertilizer use 163
Chemical use 165
Industrial use 166
Price 167
Trade 167
Southwest Asia 168
Producing companies 168
Capacity 171
Salient statistics 172
Production 172
Consumption 172
Fertilizer use 174
Chemical use 175
Industrial use 176
Trade 177
Southeast Asia 180
Producing companies 180
Capacity 182
Salient statistics 182
Production 183
Consumption 183
Fertilizer use 185
Chemical use 186
Industrial use 186
Trade 187
Northeast Asia 190
Producing companies 190
Capacity 191
Salient statistics 192
Production 193
Consumption 193
Fertilizer use 194
Chemical use 195
Industrial use 196
Trade 197
Oceania 200
Producing companies 200
Capacity 201
Salient statistics 202
Production 202
Consumption 202
Fertilizer use 204
Chemical use 204
Industrial use 205
Trade 206
Bibliography 209

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