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Chemical Economics Handbook

Sulfuric Acid

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary7
Introduction9
Physical properties and grades9
Manufacturing processes10
Sulfur dioxide production11
Elemental sulfur11
Smelter off-gases and pyrites11
Stack gases12
Hydrogen sulfide12
Spent acid or sulfuric acid sludges13
Other13
Sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid13
Contact process13
Chamber process14
Refortified or reused sulfuric acid15
Environmental issues15
Supply and demand by region16
World16
Production capacity16
Salient statistics17
Production18
Consumption20
Trade23
North America25
Producing Companies25
Production capacity30
United States31
Canada31
Mexico32
Salient statistics32
Production33
Consumption35
Trade35
United States37
Salient statistics37
Production38
Consumption41
Fertilizer use42
Wet-process phosphoric acid43
Normal superphosphate44
Metallurgical applications44
Ore processing44
Iron and steel industry46
Other46
Petroleum alkylation47
Methyl methacrylate49
Ammonium sulfate and caprolactam49
Aluminum sulfate50
Hydrofluoric acid51
Pulp and paper51
Batteries52
Surface-active agents53
Cellulosic fibers and plastics53
Titanium dioxide55
Water treatment55
Hydrochloric acid/sodium and potassium sulfate56
Electric utilities56
Chlorine drying56
Chrome chemicals56
Citric acid57
Boric acid57
Resorcinol57
Furfural57
Alcohols58
Phenol58
Miscellaneous58
Price58
Trade61
Canada63
Salient statistics63
Production64
Consumption64
Trade65
Mexico66
Salient statistics66
Production67
Consumption68
Trade69
Latin America70
Producing companies70
Production capacity74
Salient statistics75
Production76
Consumption78
Price79
Trade80
Western Europe81
Producing companies81
Production capacity85
Salient statistics87
Production87
Consumption90
Price93
Trade94
Central Europe96
Producing companies96
Production capacity99
Salient statistics100
Production101
Consumption103
Price104
Trade104
Eastern Europe107
Producing companies107
Production capacity110
Salient statistics111
Production112
Consumption113
Price115
Trade115
Middle East117
Producing companies118
Production capacity120
Salient statistics121
Production122
Consumption124
Price125
Trade125
Africa127
Producing companies127
Production capacity131
Salient statistics132
Production133
Consumption135
Price136
Trade136
China139
Producing companies139
Salient statistics147
Production148
Consumption149
Fertilizer use149
Chemical and miscellaneous use149
Titanium dioxide150
Hydrofluoric acid150
Dicalcium phosphate (DCP)150
Rayon150
Citric acid150
Methyl methacrylate150
Sulfonated surfactants - linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)151
Aluminum sulfate151
Sodium dichromate151
Miscellaneous use151
Price152
Trade153
Japan154
Producing companies154
Salient statistics156
Production157
Consumption158
Fibers159
Fertilizers160
Titanium dioxide160
Other160
Aluminum sulfate160
Hydrofluoric acid160
Methyl methacrylate (MMA)161
Calcium sulfate161
Miscellaneous161
Price161
Trade162
Southwest Asia163
Producing companies163
Production capacity167
Salient statistics168
Production169
Consumption171
Trade172
Southeast Asia173
Producing companies173
Production capacity176
Salient statistics177
Production178
Consumption179
Trade180
Northeast Asia182
Producing companies182
Production capacity185
Salient statistics185
Production186
Consumption187
Trade188
Oceania190
Producing companies190
Production capacity192
Salient statistics193
Production194
Consumption196
Trade196
Bibliography199

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