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Chemical Economics Handbook

Rare Earth Minerals and Products

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary5
Summary6
Introduction11
Cerium12
Yttrium12
Lanthanum13
Neodymium13
Praseodymium13
Samarium13
Gadolinium13
Dysprosium14
Europium14
Terbium14
Other14
Substitution15
Wind turbines15
Batteries (NiMH)15
Phosphors15
Environmental issues16
Recycling17
Minerals18
Description18
Grades and specifications18
Mineral recovery processes20
Plutonic ores20
Sedimentary ores21
Supply and demand by region21
World21
Reserves21
Capacity22
Production24
Consumption25
United States26
Reserves26
Producing companies27
Salient statistics27
Price29
Trade29
Western Europe30
Reserves30
Producing companies30
Japan30
China30
Reserves30
Producing companies30
Production32
Australia33
Reserves33
Producing companies34
Production35
Other countries35
Reserves35
Producing companies36
Products39
Grades and specifications40
Commercial-grade products (Class IA)40
Partly refined concentrates (Class IB)40
Individual rare earth compounds and metals (Class II)40
Manufacturing processes41
Commercial-grade products41
Products from bastnäsite41
Products from monazite41
Products from rare earth chloride41
Products from miscellaneous starting materials42
Partly refined concentrates42
Products from bastnäsite42
Products from rare earth chloride42
Individual rare earth compounds and metals42
Liquid-liquid solvent extraction42
Ion exchange separation43
Miscellaneous separation techniques43
Supply and demand by region50
United States50
Producing companies50
Salient statistics53
Consumption54
Fluid cracking catalysts (FCC)54
Emission control catalysts (ECC)56
Metallurgy57
Glass and ceramics62
Battery alloys (NiMH)65
Other67
Price70
Trade71
Imports71
Exports73
Western Europe74
Producing companies74
Salient statistics77
Consumption77
Catalysts78
Polishing powders80
Metallurgy80
Magnets81
Phosphors82
Batteries (NiMH)82
Glass and ceramics82
Other83
Price83
Trade84
Japan85
Producing companies85
Salient statistics87
Consumption87
Catalysts88
Nickel metal hydride batteries (NiMH)90
Magnets91
Polishing powders92
Phosphors92
Glass92
Ceramics92
Metallurgy92
Other93
Price93
Trade93
Imports93
Exports95
China96
Producing companies96
Salient statistics99
Consumption 102
Magnets 103
Polishing powders 105
Emission control catalysts (automotive) 106
Fluid cracking catalysts (oil refining) 106
Glass and ceramics 107
Batteries (NiMH) 107
Metallurgy 109
Phosphors 109
Other 110
Price 110
Trade 111
Imports 111
Exports 112
Other regions 114
Producing companies 114
Salient statistics 118
Bibliography 119

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