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Chemical Economics Handbook

Polyurethane Foams

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary 5
Summary 7
Americas 10
Europe, Middle East, and Africa 10
Asia Pacific 11
Key industry drivers 11
Introduction 13
Manufacturing processes 14
Flexible polyurethane foams 14
Alternative blowing agents 15
Chemical additives 15
Forced foam cooling 16
Controlled-pressure foaming 16
Carbon dioxide system 16
Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate (PU/PIR) foams 16
Foam systems 18
Environmental issues 19
Blowing agents 19
Flammability standards 23
Recycling 24
Supply and demand by region 25
United States 25
Producing companies 25
Production 32
Consumption 32
Flexible foams 32
Bedding 34
Transportation 35
Furniture 35
Flooring underlay 36
Packaging 37
Textiles 37
Other 38
Rigid foams 38
Construction 41
Appliances 42
Industrial insulation 42
Packaging 43
Transportation 43
Other 43
Price 44
Trade 44
Canada 45
Producing companies 45
Salient statistics 46
Flexible foams 46
Rigid foams 48
Mexico 50
Producing companies 50
Salient statistics 51
Flexible foams 51
Rigid foams 53
Central and South America 55
Producing companies 55
Salient statistics 55
Europe, Middle East, and Africa 58
Western Europe 58
Producing companies 58
Production 63
Consumption 63
Flexible and semirigid foams 64
Rigid foams 66
Price 67
Trade 67
Flexible foam 68
Rigid foam 69
Central and Eastern Europe 69
Producing companies 69
Production 72
Consumption 72
Trade 74
Middle East and Africa 74
Production 74
Consumption 74
Japan 75
Producing companies 75
Production 77
Consumption 78
Flexible foam 78
Transportation 79
Furniture and bedding 80
Other 80
Rigid foam 80
Construction and industrial insulation 81
Refrigeration 81
Other 81
Price 81
Trade 83
China 83
Producing companies 83
Salient statistics 85
Consumption 86
Flexible foam 86
Rigid foam 87
Other Asia 88
Producing companies 88
Salient statistics 91
India 93
South Korea 93
Taiwan 95
Other 95
Oceania 95
Bibliography 97

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