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Chemical Economics Handbook

Plastics Recycling

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Glossary6
Executive summary9
Introduction10
Recycling defined11
United States13
Background13
Municipal solid waste13
Plastics in perspective17
Evolution of plastics recycling19
Legislative summary20
Bottle legislation20
Plastic bag legislation20
Current status21
Obstacles to plastics recycling and reclaiming21
Key factors for success in plastics recycling23
Technology24
Sorting/granulation24
Separation (physical)26
Separation (chemical)28
Recovery (thermal)28
Pyrolysis29
Gasification29
Hydrogenation30
Collection infrastructure30
Thermoplastic resin profile32
Producing companies32
Production34
Major sources of thermoplastic recyclables36
The recycling of plastics43
PET44
Producers (reclaimers)45
Salient statistics46
PET recycling rates48
Consumption49
Plastic bottles52
Bottled water54
Trade54
Polyethylenes (HDPE, LDPE, and LLDPE)55
HDPE55
Producers (reclaimers)55
Production (reclaimed)58
Consumption60
LDPE/LLDPE64
Producers (reclaimers)64
Consumption66
Trade67
Polypropylene68
Producers (reclaimers)68
Production (reclaimed)70
Consumption70
Polystyrene71
Producers (reclaimers)71
Production (reclaimed)73
Consumption74
Trade75
PVC76
Producers (reclaimers)76
Consumption77
Trade79
Price79
Canada86
Thermoplastic resin profile86
Producing companies86
Producers (reclaimers)86
Municipal solid waste88
PET91
HDPE92
LDPE/LLDPE94
Polypropylene94
Polystyrene (expandable)96
PVC97
Mexico99
Thermoplastic resin profile99
PET99
Polyethylenes (HDPE, LDPE, and LLDPE) 102
HDPE 104
LDPE/LLDPE 104
Polypropylene 106
Polystyrene and EPS 106
PVC 109
Other 110
Central and South America 111
Thermoplastic resin profile 111
Producing companies 111
Municipal solid waste (MSW) in Brazil 112
Recycling in Brazil 112
PET 114
Producers (reclaimers) 114
Production of rPET 116
Consumption of rPET 117
Trade 120
Polyethylenes (HDPE, LDPE, and LLDPE) 121
HDPE 121
LDPE/LLDPE 123
Trade 124
Imports 124
Exports 125
Polypropylene 125
Polystyrene (EPS) 127
PVC 129
Europe 133
Recycling terminology 133
Alternative recycling methods 134
Mechanical recycling 134
Feedstock recycling 135
Energy recovery 135
Major producers (reclaimers) of recycled resins 135
Sources of postconsumer waste and consumption of recycled resins 138
PET 140
Polyolefins 141
Polyvinyl chloride 142
Price 143
Middle East and Africa 148
Bahrain 148
Israel 148
Saudi Arabia 148
Turkey 149
United Arab Emirates 149
Africa 150
Japan 152
Legislative summary 152
The Basic Act for Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society (SMS) 152
Law for the Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources 153
Designated resource-saving industries 153
Designated resource-recycling industries 153
Specified reuse-promoted products 154
Specified labeled products 154
Specified resource-recycled products 154
Specified by-products 155
Recycling structure 155
Disposition of plastic waste 156
Recent business activities in plastics recycling 157
PET 157
Polyolefins 157
Expanded polystyrene 158
PVC 158
Sources of postconsumer waste and consumption of recycled resins 158
PET 159
Polyolefins 160
Expanded polystyrene 160
Polyvinyl chloride 161
Feedstock recycling 162
Reducing agent for blast furnaces 163
Feedstock recycle in coke ovens 163
Liquefaction and gasification 163
Depolymerization of PET 164
Thermal recycling 164
Fuel for power generation 164
Price 165
China 166
Legislative summary and current activity 166
Plastics recycling 167
Salient statistics 168
Consumption 169
Trade 170
South Korea 172
Legislative summary and current activity 172
Plastics recycling 173
Taiwan 175
Legislative summary and current activity 175
Regulated recyclable waste 175
Recycling of waste containers 175
Plastics recycling 176
Australia 178
Producers (reclaimers) 178
Recycling 178
Consumption by resin 181
PET 182
Polyethylenes (HDPE, LDPE, and LLDPE) 183
HDPE 183
LDPE/LLDPE 183
Polypropylene 184
Polystyrene 185
Expanded polystyrene 185
Bibliography 187

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