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Chemical Economics Handbook

Lithium, Lithium Minerals and Lithium Chemicals

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary9
Supply and demand16
Lithium carbonate16
Lithium hydroxide18
Lithium chloride19
End uses20
Lithium battery market21
Primary lithium batteries23
Secondary lithium batteries24
Lithium-ion batteries24
Lithium-air batteries26
Lithium-sulfur batteries26
Batteries for mobile devices27
Batteries for grid storage32
Nonbattery market32
Ceramics and glass32
Lubricants33
Air treatment33
Polymer and rubber34
Primary aluminum34
Pharmaceuticals35
Other35
Continuous casting35
Cement36
Fuel cells36
Nuclear reactors36
Introduction36
Manufacturing processes37
Brine versus hard rock37
Lithium tree38
Lithium hydroxide40
Lithium chloride40
Lithium bromide40
Lithium nitrate40
Organolithium compounds40
Supply and demand by region42
World42
Resources42
Reserves44
Producing companies46
Lithium raw materials46
Lithium chemistries49
SQM50
Rockwood Lithium (formerly Chemetall)51
FMC Lithium52
Talison Lithium52
Lithium carbonate53
Lithium hydroxide55
Production55
Consumption58
Price59
United States60
Producing companies60
Salient statistics62
Lithium carbonate62
Lithium hydroxide63
Lithium chloride63
Lithium metal64
Spodumene concentrate65
Consumption66
By product67
Lithium carbonate67
Lithium hydroxide67
Lithium chloride67
By end use68
Organolithium compounds69
Lithium hypochlorite69
Lubricants70
Ceramics and glass70
Batteries70
Primary aluminum (and alloys)71
Air treatment72
Other72
Price73
Trade76
Imports77
Lithium carbonate77
Lithium hydroxide77
Lithium chloride78
Lithium metal79
Exports79
Lithium carbonate80
Lithium hydroxide81
Lithium chloride81
Lithium metal81
Canada82
Producing companies82
Salient statistics85
Lithium carbonate85
Lithium hydroxide86
Lithium chloride86
Lithium metal86
Consumption86
Lithium carbonate86
Lithium hydroxide87
Lithium chloride and metal87
Price87
Trade88
Imports88
Exports88
Mexico89
Producing companies89
Salient statistics90
Consumption90
Trade90
Imports90
Exports91
Central and South America91
Producing companies91
Argentina92
ADY Resources93
Lithium One93
Li3 Energy, Inc94
Orocobre94
Rodinia Lithium95
Bolivia95
Brazil96
Chile96
Peru97
Salient statistics98
Lithium carbonate98
Lithium hydroxide98
Lithium chloride99
Lithium metal100
Production100
Consumption101
Price102
Lithium carbonate102
Lithium hydroxide103
Trade104
Imports104
Lithium carbonate104
Lithium hydroxide105
Lithium chloride106
Exports106
Western Europe107
Producing companies107
Finland107
Germany107
Portugal107
United Kingdom108
Salient statistics108
Lithium carbonate108
Lithium hydroxide108
Lithium chloride109
Consumption110
Price110
Trade111
Imports111
Lithium carbonate111
Lithium hydroxide111
Lithium chloride112
Exports113
Lithium carbonate113
Lithium hydroxide114
Lithium chloride115
Central and Eastern Europe115
Producing companies115
Salient statistics116
Lithium carbonate116
Lithium hydroxide116
Consumption117
Price117
Trade118
Imports118
Lithium carbonate118
Lithium hydroxide119
Lithium chloride120
Exports120
Lithium carbonate120
Lithium hydroxide121
Lithium chloride122
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and Baltic States122
Producing companies122
Salient statistics123
Lithium carbonate123
Lithium hydroxide124
Trade124
Imports124
Lithium carbonate124
Lithium hydroxide125
Exports126
Lithium hydroxide126
Middle East and Africa126
Producing companies126
Democratic Republic of the Congo127
Israel127
Mali127
South Africa127
Zimbabwe127
Salient statistics128
Lithium carbonate128
Lithium hydroxide128
Lithium chloride129
Consumption129
Price130
Trade130
Lithium carbonate130
Lithium hydroxide131
Lithium chloride132
Japan132
Producing companies132
Salient statistics132
Lithium carbonate132
Lithium hydroxide133
Lithium chloride134
Consumption134
Lithium carbonate134
Lithium hydroxide135
Trade136
Imports136
Exports139
China139
Producing companies139
Lithium carbonate145
Lithium hydroxide146
Lithium chloride147
Salient statistics147
Lithium carbonate147
Lithium hydroxide148
Lithium chloride149
Consumption150
Lithium carbonate150
Lithium hydroxide151
Lithium chloride152
Trade152
Imports152
Lithium carbonate153
Lithium hydroxide153
Lithium chloride154
Exports155
Lithium carbonate157
Lithium hydroxide158
Lithium chloride158
Other Asia and Oceania159
Producing companies159
Afghanistan160
India160
Taiwan160
Salient statistics160
Spodumene161
Production161
Lithium carbonate162
Lithium hydroxide163
Lithium chloride165
Consumption165
Lithium carbonate165
Lithium hydroxide165
Lithium chloride166
Trade166
Imports166
Lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide166
Lithium chloride172
Exports172
Spodumene172
Lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide173
Bibliography175

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