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Chemical Economics Handbook

Lignosulfonates

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary5
Introduction8
Manufacturing processes 11
From sulfite liquor 11
From kraft pulping liquor (black liquor) 12
Environmental issues 13
Supply and demand by region 14
United States 14
Producing companies 14
Salient statistics 16
Production 16
Consumption 17
Dispersant applications 18
Concrete admixtures 18
Pesticide dispersants 19
Oil field chemicals 19
Asphalt emulsions 20
Cement additives 20
Water treatment 20
Lead batteries 21
Dyes 21
Gypsum wallboard 21
Leather tanning 21
Micronutrients 22
Pigment dispersants 22
Industrial cleaners 22
Other 22
Binder and adhesive applications 22
Road binder, dust control 23
Animal feed pellets 23
Ceramics, bricks, refractories, and foundry cores 24
Adhesives 24
Soil conditioner 25
Carbon black 25
Animal feed molasses additive 25
Price 25
Trade 26
Imports 26
Exports 28
Canada 29
Producing companies 29
Salient statistics 29
Consumption 30
Price 30
Trade 31
Latin America 31
Salient statistics 32
Consumption 32
Trade 33
Western Europe 34
Producing companies 35
Salient statistics 36
Production 37
Consumption 37
Dispersant applications 38
Concrete admixtures and cement additives 38
Agricultural dispersants 39
Oil well drilling additives 39
Dyes and pigments 39
Leather tanning 39
Gypsum wallboard 40
Lead batteries 40
Paper and board sizing agents 40
Other 40
Binder and adhesive applications 41
Animal feed pellets 41
Carbon black and coal 41
Other 41
Vanillin 42
Price 42
Trade 43
Imports 43
Exports 44
Central and Eastern Europe 44
Producing companies 44
Salient statistics 46
Consumption 46
Price 47
Trade 47
Imports 48
Exports 48
Middle East 49
Salient statistics 49
Price 50
Trade 50
Imports 50
Exports 51
Africa 51
Producing companies 51
Salient statistics 52
Price 52
Trade 53
Imports 53
Exports 54
Japan 54
Producing companies 54
Salient statistics 55
Consumption 55
Concrete admixtures 56
Dye dispersant, pigments, and inks 56
Ore briquetting 56
Other 56
Price 56
Trade 57
China 57
Producing companies 58
Salient statistics 59
Consumption 59
Trade 59
Other Asia And Oceania 61
Producing companies 61
Salient statistics 61
Trade 61
Bibliography 63

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