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Chemical Economics Handbook

Chromium Compounds, Inorganic

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary 9
Sodium Dichromate 9
Chromic Acid (Chromium Trioxide) 12
Chromium Sulfate 13
Chromium Oxides 14
Chrome Pigments 15
Introduction 16
Manufacturing Processes 19
Sodium Dichromate and Chromate 20
Chromic Acid 21
Chromium Sulfate 22
Chromium Oxide 22
Chromium Dioxide 22
Potassium Dichromate/Chromate 23
Ammonium Dichromate 23
Lead Chromate 23
Process Selection 23
Chromium Reclamation Processes 24
Environmental Issues 24
United States 25
U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Standards 25
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Standards 26
State and Regional Standards 27
Europe 27
Leather Tanning 28
Pigments 29
Dyestuffs and Textile Dyeing 29
Metal Plating 29
Wood Preservation 29
Business Dynamics 30
Supply and Demand by Region 31
United States 31
Producing Companies 31
Chromium Recovery Companies 34
Production 35
Salient Statistics 35
Sodium Dichromate 35
Chromic Acid 37
Chromium Sulfate 38
Chromium Oxides 39
Zinc or Lead Chromates 40
Chrome Pigments 41
Consumption 42
Sodium Dichromate 42
Chromic Acid 45
Metal finishing 45
Wood preservatives 47
Metal treatment 49
Corrosion control 49
Other 49
Basic Chromium Sulfate 50
Chromium Oxides 53
Chrome Pigments 54
Other 56
Potassium dichromate and chromate 56
Ammonium dichromate 56
Price 57
Trade 59
Sodium Dichromate and Chromate 61
Imports 61
Exports 62
Chromic Acid 63
Imports 63
Exports 63
Chromium Sulfate 64
Chromium Oxides 65
Potassium Dichromate 66
Other Chromates and Dichromates 67
Zinc or Lead Chromate 68
Chrome Pigments 69
Imports 70
Exports 71
Canada 71
Producing Companies 71
Salient Statistics 72
Consumption 72
Price 73
Trade 73
Sodium Dichromate 73
Chromic Acid 74
Chromium Sulfate 75
Chromium Oxides 76
Chrome Pigments 77
Chromates 78
Mexico 79
Producing Companies 79
Salient Statistics 80
Sodium Dichromate 80
Chromic Acid 80
Chromium Sulfate 81
Chromium Oxides 82
Chromates and Dichromates 82
Chrome Pigments 83
Consumption 84
Price 84
Trade 85
Sodium Dichromate 85
Chromic Acid 85
Chromium Sulfate 86
Chromium Oxides 87
Chrome Pigments 88
Central and South America 89
Producing Companies 89
Salient Statistics 91
Sodium Dichromate 91
Chromic Acid 92
Chromium Sulfate 92
Chromium Oxide 93
Chromates and Dichromates 94
Chrome Pigments 95
Consumption 96
Price 97
Trade 97
Sodium Dichromate 97
Imports 97
Exports 97
Chromic Acid 98
Imports 98
Exports 99
Chromium Sulfate 100
Imports 100
Exports 100
Chromium Oxides 101
Imports 101
Exports 102
Chrome Pigments 103
Imports 103
Exports 104
Chromates 105
Western Europe 106
Producing Companies 106
Production 110
Salient Statistics 110
Sodium Dichromate 110
Chromic Acid 111
Chromium Sulfate 112
Chromium Oxides 113
Chromates and Dichromates 114
Chrome Pigments 115
Consumption 117
Sodium Dichromate 117
Chromic Acid 118
Metal finishing 118
Wood treatment 119
Basic Chrome Sulfate—Leather Tanning 119
Chromic Oxide 120
Technical grades 121
Refractory materials 121
Pigment grades 121
Chrome Pigments 122
Other 122
Potassium chromate and dichromate 123
Ammonium dichromate 123
Chromium dioxide 123
Chrome lignosulfonate 123
Price 124
Trade 124
Imports 124
Sodium dichromate 125
Chromic acid 128
Chromium sulfate 130
Chromium oxides 132
Potassium dichromate 133
Chromates of zinc or lead 133
Chrome pigments 133
Exports 134
Sodium dichromate 135
Chromium sulfate 136
Chromium oxides 136
Potassium dichromate 137
Chromates of zinc or lead 137
Chrome pigments 137
Central and Eastern Europe 137
Producing Companies 137
Salient Statistics 140
Consumption 143
Sodium Dichromate 143
Chromium Oxides 144
Chromic Acid 144
Leather Industry 145
Chrome Pigments 145
Trade 145
Sodium Dichromate 145
Imports 145
Exports 146
Chromic Acid 145
Imports 147
Exports 148
Chromium Sulfate 148
Imports 148
Exports 149
Chromium Oxides 150
Imports 150
Exports 151
Chrome Pigments 151
Imports 152
Exports 153
Other Chromates and Dichromates 154
Africa and Middle East 155
Producing Companies 155
Salient Statistics 156
Consumption 159
Trade 161
Sodium Dichromate 161
Chromic Acid 163
Chromium Sulfate 164
Chromium Oxides 166
Chrome Pigments 167
Other 168
Potassium dichromate 168
Zinc or lead chromates 168
Other chromates and dichromates 169
Japan 169
Producing Companies 169
Salient Statistics 170
Consumption 174
Sodium Dichromate 174
Chromic Acid 175
Chromium Oxide 176
Potassium Dichromate 177
Price 177
Trade 180
China 180
Producing Companies 180
Production 183
Salient Statistics 184
Consumption 187
Sodium Dichromate 187
Chromic Acid 188
Basic Chromium Sulfate 188
Chrome Oxide 189
Chrome Pigments 189
Price 189
Trade 190
Imports 191
Exports 191
India 192
Producing Companies 192
Production 193
Salient Statistics 194
Consumption 198
Price 199
Trade 200
Imports 200
Exports 201
Other Asia and Oceania 201
Producing Companies 201
Salient Statistics 202
Consumption 207
Trade 207
Bibliography 208

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