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Chemical Economics Handbook

Helium

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary5
Introduction8
Business dynamics8
Distribution9
Major applications 10
Liquid 10
MRI and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 10
Science and research 11
Particle physics research 11
GPS 11
Nuclear reactors 11
Other cryogenic 12
Gas 12
Welding cover gas 12
Pressuring and purging 12
Controlled atmospheres 12
Lifting gas 12
Fiber optics (glass fibers) 13
Semiconductors/electronics 13
Analytical gas 13
Leak detection 14
Heat transfer 14
Breathing mixtures 14
Other 14
Airbags 14
Helium-3 15
Product substitution 15
Manufacturing processes 17
Supply and demand by region 18
World 18
Reserves and resources 18
Producing companies 21
Capacity 25
Salient statistics 26
Supply 26
Consumption 27
Trade 29
North America 30
Salient statistics 30
Consumption 31
United States 31
Producing companies 31
Salient statistics 35
Consumption 36
Government use 39
Helium-3 40
Price 40
Trade 42
Canada 43
Central and South America 44
Western Europe 44
Producing companies 44
Air Liquide 44
Linde 45
Matheson Global Helium 45
Messer 45
Woikoski 45
Salient statistics 45
Consumption 46
Price 47
Trade 48
Central Europe 48
Producing companies 48
Salient statistics 49
Eastern Europe 49
Producing companies 50
Orenburg 50
Siberia 50
Salient statistics 51
Production 51
Middle East 52
Producing companies 52
Iran 52
Qatar 52
Distributors 53
Air Liquide 53
Air Products 53
Global Gases Group 53
Gulf Helium Services 53
Linde 53
Salient statistics 54
Africa 54
Producing companies 54
Hélios 54
Helison 55
Salient statistics 55
Japan 55
Producing companies 55
Salient statistics 57
Consumption 58
Gas 59
Liquid 60
Price 60
Trade 60
China 61
Producing companies 61
Salient statistics 62
Consumption 63
Liquid 64
Gas 64
Fiber optics 64
Semiconductor/electronics 64
Welding 64
Other 65
Price 65
Trade 65
Other Asia 66
Producing companies 66
Salient statistics 66
Consumption 67
India 68
South Korea 69
Thailand 70
Trade 71
Oceania 71
Producing companies 71
Salient statistics 71
Consumption 72
Bibliography 73

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