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Chemical Economics Handbook

Fluorocarbons

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary5
Summary6
Industry structure and dynamics11
Introduction and nomenclature15
Environmental issues and regulations20
Montreal Protocol and ozone depletion20
Kyoto Protocol and global warming21
Montreal Protocol and climate protection (Kigali Amendment)23
United States24
EPA regulations24
New substitute for HFC-134a in motor vehicle air-conditioning28
Reclamation and reuse28
European Union28
Japan31
China33
CFC phaseout33
HCFC phaseout35
HFC phasedown37
Developing countries37
Manufacturing processes38
Supply and demand by region41
North America41
Producing companies41
Salient statistics42
Production42
Consumption43
Refrigeration and air-conditioning45
Commercial and industrial refrigeration51
Stationary air-conditioning52
Mobile air-conditioning53
Household refrigerators and freezers54
Polymer precursors54
Fluoropolymers56
Fluoroelastomers57
Foam blowing agents57
Aerosol propellants60
Solvent cleaning61
Other63
Price63
Trade64
United States64
Canada65
Mexico65
Central and South America66
Producing companies66
Salient statistics67
Consumption67
Trade68
Europe69
Producing companies69
Salient statistics71
Production71
Consumption72
Polymer precursors74
Fluoropolymers76
Fluoroelastomers76
Refrigeration and air-conditioning77
Mobile air-conditioning79
Stationary air-conditioning systems79
Refrigeration80
Foam blowing agents81
Extruded polystyrene foam (XPS)82
Polyurethane boards82
Polyurethane flexible foams82
Polyurethane spray foams82
Appliances82
Aerosol propellants83
Solvent cleaning and other84
Price84
Trade85
Imports85
Exports86
Eastern Europe and CIS86
Producing companies86
Salient statistics87
Consumption87
Trade88
Middle East and Africa88
Consumption89
Trade89
Japan90
Producing companies90
Salient statistics92
Production92
Consumption93
Polymer precursors96
Refrigeration and air-conditioning97
Foam blowing agents98
Solvent cleaning98
Aerosol propellants99
Price99
Trade99
Imports100
Exports101
China102
Producing companies102
Salient statistics108
HCFCs108
HFCs110
HFOs111
Consumption111
HCFCs by type111
HCFC-22112
HCFC-141b112
HCFC-142b112
HCFCs by market113
Polymer precursors113
Refrigeration and air-conditioning114
Foam blowing agents115
Solvent, aerosol, and other115
HCFC emissive consumption and phaseout implementation115
HFCs118
HCFC-142b/VDF conversion119
Refrigeration and air-conditioning119
Foam blowing agents119
Other120
HFOs120
Price121
Trade121
Other Asia123
Producing companies123
Salient statistics124
Consumption125
Trade127
Appendix I—Ozone depletion and fluorocarbons128
Appendix II—Global warming and fluorocarbons130
Bibliography131

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