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Chemical Economics Handbook

Ethanol

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary7
Introduction13
Manufacturing processes16
Synthetic production16
Direct hydration of ethylene16
Fischer-Tropsch conversion17
Hydrogenation of acetic acid17
Production by fermentation18
Fermentation ethanol from traditional feedstocks18
Wet milling process18
Dry milling process20
By-products21
Cellulosic ethanol22
Research and development23
Major production cost components24
Environmental and social issues25
Supply and demand by region27
United States27
Producing companies27
Salient statistics49
Production50
Consumption53
Motor fuel54
Legislation 1977-200460
Legislation 2005–0664
Legislation 2007–0864
Legislation 2009–1168
Legislation 2012–1470
Future developments71
Economic issues73
Chemical raw materials74
ETBE74
Vinegar75
Ethyl acrylate75
Ethylamines75
Ethyl acetate76
Glycol ethers76
Acetaldehyde77
Other77
Solvent applications78
Human consumption79
Other80
Price80
Fuel ethanol80
Industrial ethanol82
Trade84
Canada89
Producing companies89
Production92
Consumption93
Trade94
Mexico94
Caribbean Basin96
Brazil102
Producing companies102
Salient statistics106
Production107
Consumption112
Fuel112
Industrial117
Ethylene117
ETBE118
Acetic acid and esters118
Other119
Price119
Trade124
Other South America126
Argentina128
Chile129
Colombia129
Ecuador130
Paraguay130
Peru130
Uruguay131
Western Europe131
Producing companies131
Salient statistics144
Production144
Synthetic146
Fermentation146
First-generation fermentation processes146
Advanced/second-generation production148
Consumption149
Motor fuel150
European legislation151
Taxation153
Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE)154
Direct blending156
Solvent applications156
Beverage/potable157
Chemical raw materials158
Acetic acid/vinegar159
Acetaldehyde160
Ethyl acrylate160
Ethylamines161
Ethyl acetate161
Glycol ethers162
Other162
Price162
Trade163
Imports163
Exports165
Central and Eastern Europe166
Producing companies166
Salient statistics172
Bulgaria174
Czech Republic174
Hungary174
Kazakhstan175
Poland175
Romania175
Russia176
Ukraine176
Price176
Trade177
Imports177
Exports178
Middle East180
Producing companies180
Salient statistics182
Iran183
Iraq184
Israel184
Oman184
Saudi Arabia184
Turkey184
Price185
Trade186
Imports186
Exports186
Africa188
Producing companies188
Salient statistics195
Angola197
Ethiopia197
Ghana198
Kenya198
Malawi198
Mozambique199
Nigeria199
Senegal199
Sierra Leone200
South Africa200
Sudan200
Zambia201
Zimbabwe201
Price201
Trade202
Imports202
Exports203
Japan205
Producing companies205
Production208
Consumption210
Human consumption211
Solvent applications212
Chemical raw materials212
Fuels212
Price213
Trade214
China215
Producing companies215
Salient statistics220
Consumption221
Alcoholic beverages221
Motor fuels221
Solvent and chemical uses223
Trade223
India223
Producing companies223
Salient statistics227
Consumption227
Trade228
Other Asia229
Producing companies229
Salient statistics234
Indonesia234
Malaysia235
Pakistan236
Philippines236
Singapore237
South Korea237
Taiwan238
Thailand239
Vietnam241
Oceania242
Australia242
Producing companies242
Salient statistics243
New Zealand244
Bibliography244

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