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Chemical Economics Handbook

Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary6
Summary7
Reserves8
Refining capacity10
Production13
Crude petroleum13
Refined petroleum products19
Consumption20
Crude petroleum20
Refined petroleum products21
Price24
Crude petroleum24
Refined petroleum products25
Trade26
Crude petroleum26
Petroleum products27
Crude Petroleum28
Characteristics28
Production28
Refining processes30
Distillation30
Hydrotreating/hydrodesulfurization31
Catalytic cracking31
Catalytic reforming32
Isomerization32
Hydrocracking33
Alkylation33
Thermal operations33
Coking33
Delayed coking33
Fluid coking33
Visbreaking34
Supply and demand by region35
United States35
Capacity35
Crude petroleum reserves35
Petroleum refining capacity36
Salient statistics41
Production42
Crude petroleum42
Petroleum products43
Input44
Output44
Consumption45
Crude petroleum45
Petroleum products45
Gasoline46
Distillate fuel oils47
Jet fuels48
Residual fuel oils49
Petroleum coke50
Still gases51
Asphalt and road oil51
Petrochemical feedstocks51
Lubricants51
Specialty naphthas52
Kerosene53
Price54
Crude petroleum54
Petroleum products56
Trade58
Imports58
Crude petroleum58
Petroleum products59
Exports60
Crude petroleum60
Petroleum products60
Canada61
Reserves61
Crude petroleum and oil sands reserves61
Petroleum refining capacity63
Salient statistics64
Production65
Consumption66
Price68
Crude petroleum68
Oil sands68
Petroleum products68
Trade69
Crude petroleum69
Petroleum products69
Mexico70
Capacity70
Crude petroleum reserves70
Petroleum refining capacity70
Salient statistics71
Production72
Consumption73
Price74
Trade75
Crude petroleum75
Petroleum products75
South America76
Capacity76
Crude petroleum reserves76
Petroleum refining capacity76
Salient statistics79
Production80
Consumption84
Trade90
Western Europe92
Capacity92
Crude petroleum reserves92
Petroleum refining capacity92
Salient statistics95
Production96
Consumption 101
Price 107
Crude petroleum 107
Petroleum products 107
Trade 109
Crude petroleum 109
Petroleum products 110
Central Europe 110
Capacity 110
Crude petroleum reserves 110
Petroleum refining capacity 110
Salient statistics 111
Production 112
Consumption 117
Trade 122
CIS and Baltic States 123
Capacity 123
Crude petroleum reserves 123
Petroleum refining capacity 123
Salient statistics 126
Production 127
Consumption 132
Trade 137
Middle East 139
Capacity 139
Crude petroleum reserves 139
Petroleum refining capacity 140
Salient statistics 142
Production 143
Consumption 148
Price 153
Trade 154
Crude petroleum 154
Petroleum products 156
Africa 156
Capacity 156
Crude petroleum reserves 156
Petroleum refining capacity 156
Salient statistics 159
Production 159
Consumption 164
Trade 170
Crude petroleum 170
Petroleum products 171
Indian Subcontinent 171
Capacity 171
Crude petroleum reserves 171
Petroleum refining capacity 171
Salient statistics 172
Production 173
Consumption 178
Trade 183
Northeast Asia 185
Capacity 185
Crude petroleum reserves 185
Petroleum refining capacity 185
Salient statistics 187
Production 188
Consumption 193
Trade 199
Southeast Asia 200
Capacity 200
Crude petroleum reserves 200
Petroleum refining capacity 200
Salient statistics 202
Production 202
Consumption 207
Trade 213
Appendix I: US environmental legislation on motor gasoline 215
Appendix II: Discussion on historical US crude oil pricing: 1970–99 217
Bibliography 218

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