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Chemical Economics Handbook

Chlorine/Sodium Hydroxide (Chlor-Alkali)

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary 6
Salient statistics 9
Consumption 11
Price 14
Trade 15
Introduction 17
Manufacturing processes 18
Coproduction of chlorine and caustic 18
Diaphragm cell 18
Mercury cell 19
Membrane cell 20
Without coproduction of either chlorine or caustic 21
Chlorine 21
Chlorine from hydrogen chloride 21
Chlorine as a by-product of metal production 22
Chlorine coproduction with potassium hydroxide 22
Other chlorine production processes 22
Caustic/sodium hydroxide 23
Major end uses 23
Chlorine 23
Vinyls 23
Phosgene and propylene oxide 24
Epichlorohydrin 24
Intermediate chemicals 25
Chlorinate methanes 25
Chlorinated ethanes 25
Inorganic chemicals 27
Water treatment 29
Pulp and paper 30
Other 31
Sodium hydroxide (caustic) 32
Pulp and paper 33
Alumina 33
Propylene oxide 34
Polycarbonates 34
Epichlorohydrin 35
Organic chemicals 35
Inorganic chemicals 36
Soaps and detergents 38
Textile 39
Water treatment 40
Other 41
Environmental issues 44
Supply and demand by region 46
North America 46
Producing companies 46
Salient statistics 47
Consumption 47
Trade 48
United States 49
Producing companies 50
Salient statistics 56
Consumption 57
Trade 60
Canada 62
Producing companies 62
Salient statistics 63
Consumption 64
Trade 68
Mexico 68
Producing companies 69
Salient statistics 70
Consumption 72
Trade 74
South America 75
Producing companies 76
Salient statistics 80
Consumption 82
Trade 85
Europe 86
Western Europe 87
Producing companies 87
Salient statistics 96
Consumption 97
Trade 100
Central Europe 100
Producing companies 101
Salient statistics 103
Consumption 104
Trade 105
CIS and Baltic States 106
Producing companies 106
Salient statistics 109
Consumption 110
Trade 113
Middle East 114
Producing companies 114
Salient statistics 118
Consumption 119
Trade 123
Africa 123
Producing companies 123
Salient statistics 126
Consumption 127
Trade 130
Indian Subcontinent 130
Producing companies 131
Salient statistics 135
Consumption 137
Trade 139
Northeast Asia 140
Producing companies 141
Salient statistics 142
Consumption 143
Trade 145
China 146
Producing companies 146
Salient statistics 166
Consumption 168
Trade 172
Japan 173
Producing companies 173
Salient statistics 176
Consumption 178
Trade 180
Republic of Korea 181
Producing companies 181
Salient statistics 184
Consumption 185
Trade 187
Taiwan 188
Producing companies 188
Salient statistics 190
Consumption 191
Trade 194
Southeast Asia 194
Producing companies 195
Salient statistic 199
Consumption 200
Trade 203
Bibliography 203

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