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Process Economics Program Report 127

Fertilizers - Ammonium Phosphate

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

INTRODUCTION1
SUMMARY 3
General Aspects 3
Technical Aspects 6
Granulation 6
Pipe Reactor8
Crystalline Powder MAP8
INDUSTRY STATUS9
Ammonium Phosphates in North America9
Ammonium Phosphates in Latin America16
Ammonium Phosphates in Western Europe 17
Ammonium Phosphates in Eastern Europe, Including the USSR 18
Ammonium Phosphates in Africa 19
Ammonium Phosphates in Asia 20
Ammonium Phosphates in Oceania22
CHEMISTRY 25
Ammonium Orthophosphates25
Acid Impurities 25
Ammonium Polyphosphates 26
MANUFACTURE OF SOLID MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE--REVIEW OF MODERN PROCESSES 29
Granular MAP 30
Powder MAP31
Patent Summary32
Processes Using Anhydrous Melt from a Pipe Reactor32
Process that Solidifies the Solution into Powder40
Process that Produces MAP Powder by Flash Evaporation 41
Miscellaneous Processes for Making MAP42
GRANULATION OF MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE FROM ANHYDROUS MELT, USING A PIPE REACTOR 45
Process Description 47
Process Discussion56
Pipe-Cross Reactor56
Drum Granulator 59
Phosphoric Acid Feed62
Preneutralizer63
Product Finishing and Storage66
Pollution Abatement67
Corrosion70
Cost Estimates72
Capital Costs 72
Production Costs and Product Value for Grade 11-54-0 74
Production Cost and Product Value for Grade 12-48-0 79
Production Cost and Product Value for Grade 11-52-0 79
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE POWDER (POROUS MICROPRILLS OR CRUMBS) BY SPRAY SOLIDIFICATION OF MELT85
Process Description 87
Process Discussion95
Spray-Pipe Reactor95
Reactor Tower 96
Finishing and Storage 97
Cost Estimates 97
Capital Costs 97
Production Costs and Product Value99
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE POWDER BY SOLIDIFICATION OF SOLUTION107
Process Description 108
Process Discussion115
Cost Estimates118
Capital Costs 118
Production Costs and Product Value118
MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE POWDER BY FLASHING OF SOLUTION127
Process Description 129
Process Discussion136
Reactor 136
SprayTower 138
Finishing and Storage 141
Cost Estimates142
Capital Costs 142
Production Costs and Product Value142
MANUFACTURE OF SOLID DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE--REVIEW OF MODERN PROCESS151
Discussion of Processes for Making DAP154
Patent Summary155
GRANULATION OF DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE BY CONVENTIONAL SLURRY PROCESS USING THE TVA TYPE AMMONIATOR-GRANULATOR165
Process Description 167
Process Discussion172
Ammoniator-Granulator 172
Reactor 173
Pollution Abatement 174
Product Finishing 174
Process Variation 176
Cost Estimates176
Capital Costs 176
Production Costs and Product Value for Grade 18-48-0 178
Production Costs and Product Value for Grade 18-46-0183
GRANULATION OF DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE BY PROCESS USING POWDER MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE 187
Process Description 188
Process Discussion193
Cost Estimates193
Capital Costs 193
Production Costs and Product Value for Grade 18-48-0 195
Production Costs and Product Value for Grade 18-46-0199
Production Costs and Product Value for Grade 16-48-0202
AMMONIUM POLYPHOSPHATES 205
Long Chain Ammonium Polyphosphates 208
Short Chain Ammonium Polyphosphate 208
Standard Base Ammonium Polyphosphate Solutions210
Pipe Reactor Process for High Polyphosphate Liquid Fertilizer211
Solid Ammonium Polyphosphates 217
Patent Summary 218
APPENDIX A DESIGN AND COST BASIS 231
APPENDIX B PHYSICAL DATA 233
APPENDIX C ANALYSES AND SPECIFICATIONS237
APPENDIX D HANDLING, SAFETY, AND POLLUTION239
APPENDIX E GLOSSARY243
CITED REFERENCES 245
PATENT REFERENCES BY COMPANY 255

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