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Process Economics Program Report 155B

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymers

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

INTRODUCTION 1-1
SUMMARY 2-1
INDUSTRY STATUS 2-1
Consumption 2-1
Production 2-1
PRODUCTS AND PRODUCT PROPERTIES 2-2
Density 2-2
Vinyl Acetate Content 2-2
Melt Index 2-2
Molecular Weight, Molecular Weight Distribution and Molecular Branching 2-3
Other Physical Properties 2-3
Chemical and Electrical Properties 2-4
COMMERCIAL EVA PRODUCTS AND PROCESSING 2-4
Film Grades 2-4
Injection Molding Grades 2-4
Extrusion, Coextrusion, Coating, Lamination, Adhesive, and Hot-Melt Grades 2-4
Polymer Blending and Grafting Grades 2-5
PRODUCTS FROM AUTOCLAVE AND TUBULAR REACTOR PROCESSES 2-5
TECHNICAL ASPECTS 2-5
Initiator Preparation 2-6
Monomer Feed Preparation 2-6
Autoclave Reactor Processes 2-6
Tubular Reactor Processes 2-7
Autoclave Reactor Processes versus Tubular Reactor Processes 2-7
Product Finishing 2-8
Process Effluents 2-8
Modifying a High-Pressure LDPE Process for EVA Production 2-8
PROCESS ECONOMICS 2-8
An Autoclave Reactor Process 2-9
Cost Estimates 2-9
A Tubular Reactor Process 2-10
Cost Estimates 2-10
INDUSTRY STATUS 3-1
NORTH AMERICA 3-2
Production 3-2
Consumption 3-4
Trade 3-5
WESTERN EUROPE 3-6
MIDDLE EAST 3-8
OTHER AISA AND CHINA 3-9
REVIEW OF EVA PRODUCTS 4-1
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURE ATTRIBUTES 4-1
Vinyl Acetate Content 4-2
Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution 4-3
Molecular Branching 4-4
TYPICAL EVA PRODUCT PROPERTIES 4-4
Melt Index 4-5
Density 4-7
Other Physical Properties 4-8
Chemical and Electrical Properties 4-9
COMMERCIAL EVA PRODUCTS AND PROCESSING 4-10
Film Grades 4-10
Injection Molding Grades 4-11
Extrusion, Coextrusion, Coating, Lamination, Adhesive, and Hot-Melt Grades 4-12
Polymer Blending and Grafting Grades 4-13
PRODUCTS FROM AUTOCLAVE AND TUBULAR REACTOR PROCESSES 4-14
END USES 4-15
Adhesives 4-16
Films 4-17
Thermo Adhesive Films 4-18
Packaging 4-18
Cartons and Folding Boxes 4-18
Deep Freeze Packages 4-18
Bottle Labeling 4-18
Yogurt Labeling 4-19
Blow Molding and Foam Molding 4-19
Cables and Wires Applications 4-19
Extrusion, Coextrusion, Coating, Lamination 4-19
Injection Molding 4-19
Oil/Gasoil/Fuel Oil/Bitumen Additives and Asphalt Modifiers 4-20
Applications with High-growth Potential 4-21
Photovoltaic Cell and Protective Solar Film Applications 4-21
Medical and Pharmaceutical Applications 4-22
Formulations for Halogen-Free Flame Retardant (HFFR) Cables 4-22
REVIEW OF COMMERCIAL EVA PROCESSES 5-1
INTRODUCTION 5-1
Chemistry 5-2
Mechanism 5-3
CONTINUOUS BULK COPOLYMERIZATION 5-4
Initiator Preparation 5-5
Monomer Feed Preparation 5-7
Copolymerization 5-8
Autoclave Reactor Processes 5-8
Tubular Reactor Processes 5-9
Autoclave Reactor Processes versus Tubular Reactor Processes 5-10
Product Recovery 5-10
Product Finishing 5-11
Process Effluents 5-11
Modifying a High-Pressure LDPE Process for EVA Production 5-11
ENVIRONMENTAL 5-13
REVIEW OF SELECTED PROCESSES 5-14
LyondellBasell Lupotech™ T Tubular Reactor Process 5-14
LyondellBasell Autoclave Reactor Process 5-16
ExxonMobil’s LDPE-EVA Process Technology 5-17
Recent Licensing Activities 5-18
The Polimeri Europa Autoclave Reactor and Tubular Reactor Processes 5-19
Autoclave Reactor Process 5-20
Tubular Reactor Process 5-21
Recent Developments 5-22
SABTEC Clean Tubular Reactor (CTR) Process 5-22
DuPont Autoclave Process 5-23
Sumitomo Chemical Autoclave and Tubular Reactor Processes 5-24
Autoclave Reactor Process 5-25
Tubular Reactor Process 5-25
EVA COPOLYMERS BY AN AUTOCLAVE REACTOR PROCESS 6-1
BASE CASE 6-1
PROCESS DESCRIPTION 6-1
Polymerization 6-4
Product/Recycle Recovery 6-4
Product Finishing 6-5
PROCESS DISCUSSION 6-5
COST ESTIMATES 6-12
Capital Costs 6-12
Production Costs 6-15
EVA COPOLYMERS BY A TUBULAR REACTOR PROCESS 7-1
BASE CASE 7-1
PROCESS DESCRIPTION 7-1
Polymerization 7-4
Product/Recycle Recovery 7-4
Product Finishing 7-5
PROCESS DISCUSSION 7-5
COST ESTIMATES 7-12
Capital Costs 7-12
Production Costs 7-15
APPENDIX A PATENT SUMMARY TABLES A-1
APPENDIX B DESIGN AND COST BASES B-1
APPENDIX C CITED REFERENCES C-1
APPENDIX D PATENT REFERENCES BY COMPANY D-1
APPENDIX E PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS E-1

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