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Chemical Economics Handbook

Carbon Dioxide

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary7
Introduction15
Conversion factors16
Manufacturing processes17
Sources17
Industrial by-product17
Hydrogen17
Ethanol18
Substitute natural gas19
Ethylene oxide19
Other20
Natural20
Production (recovery and purification) processes21
Transportation and storage24
Environmental issues25
Supply and demand by region31
United States31
Producing companies31
Production and shipments48
Consumption48
Liquid and solid carbon dioxide49
Food industry49
Beverage carbonation52
Oil and gas recovery54
Other55
Gaseous carbon dioxide65
Pipelined for oil and gas recovery65
Captive for chemical manufacture76
Price77
Bulk liquid carbon dioxide77
Pipelined gaseous carbon dioxide78
Trade79
Canada82
Producing companies82
Salient statistics83
Consumption84
Price87
Trade87
Mexico89
Producing companies89
Production and sales90
Consumption92
Price92
Trade93
Central and South America95
Producing companies95
Salient statistics98
Western Europe99
Producing companies99
Salient statistics108
Production110
Consumption113
Gaseous carbon dioxide118
CO2 capture from flue gas118
Carbon capture and storage (CCS)118
Liquid carbon dioxide119
Beverage carbonation120
Food industry120
Welding121
Mixed gases/aerosols121
Foundry applications122
Firefighting122
Medical applications122
Rubber/plastics122
Other122
Solid carbon dioxide123
Other124
Price126
Trade128
Imports128
Exports128
Central Europe129
Producing companies129
Salient statistics133
Production135
Consumption139
Price141
Trade142
Imports142
Exports142
Eastern Europe143
Producing companies143
Salient statistics149
Production151
Consumption154
Price156
Trade157
Imports157
Exports157
Middle East158
Producing companies158
Salient statistics165
Production166
Consumption169
Price171
Trade172
Imports172
Exports172
Africa173
Producing companies173
Salient statistics178
Production180
Consumption183
Trade185
Imports185
Exports186
Japan186
Producing companies186
Salient statistics190
Production191
Consumption192
Liquid carbon dioxide195
Welding and cutting195
Beverage carbonation196
Food industry196
Steelmaking196
Other applications197
Solid carbon dioxide197
Price198
Trade198
China200
Producing companies200
Salient statistics204
Production206
Consumption207
Liquid carbon dioxide210
Welding and cutting211
Beverage carbonation211
Food industry211
Cigarettes211
Oil and gas recovery212
Rubber and plastic processing212
Firefighting212
Other212
Solid carbon dioxide212
Gaseous carbon dioxide212
Urea213
Sodium carbonate213
Ammonium bicarbonate213
Precipitated calcium carbonate213
Other213
Price214
Trade214
Other Asia and Oceania216
Salient statistics216
Consumption218
Northeast Asia221
Producing companies221
Salient statistics223
South Korea223
Taiwan224
Trade224
Southeast Asia224
Producing companies224
Salient statistics227
Indonesia227
Malaysia228
Philippines228
Singapore228
Thailand228
Vietnam229
Trade229
Southwest Asia230
Producing companies230
Salient statistics232
India232
Pakistan232
Trade232
Oceania233
Producing companies233
Salient statistics234
Australia234
New Zealand235
Papua New Guinea235
Trade236
Bibliography236

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