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Chemical Economics Handbook

C2 Chlorinated Solvents

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary 8
Industry overview 12
Perchloroethylene 14
Trichloroethylene 15
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 16
Recent and future trends 17
Manufacturing processes 18
PCE and/or TCE by chlorination of C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons 18
PCE and/or TCE by oxychlorination of C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons 19
PCE and TCE by chlorination of ethylene and thermal dehydrochlorination of product 19
PCE (and CCL4) by chlorination of C1-C3 hydrocarbons or their partially chlorinated derivatives 20
PCE and TCE by chlorination of acetylene 21
1,1,1-TCA from EDC via vinyl chloride 21
1,1,1-TCA from EDC via 1,1,2-trichloroethane 22
1,1,1-TCA by chlorination of ethane 23
Stabilization 23
Environmental issues and regulations 23
Regulations governing occupational exposure 24
United States 24
Western Europe 25
Japan 27
China 28
Regulations governing atmospheric pollution 28
United States 28
Perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene 28
Dry cleaning 28
Metal degreasing 30
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 31
Canada 31
Western Europe 31
Japan 31
China 32
Other U.S. regulations affecting C2 chlorinated solvents 33
Montreal Protocol 33
Ozone Depletion and the Montreal Protocol 34
Climate change and global warming 34
Impact on fluorocarbons 35
United States 35
Phaseout schedule 35
Reclamation and reuse 36
Europe 38
Japan 38
China 39
Developing countries 42
Supply and demand by region 42
United States 42
Producing companies 42
Production 43
Salient statistics 44
Perchloroethylene 44
Trichloroethylene 44
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 45
Consumption 46
Perchloroethylene 48
Chemical intermediates (precursor) 49
Metal cleaning 50
Dry cleaning and textile processing 54
Other 55
Trichloroethylene 56
Chemical intermediates (precursor) 56
Metal cleaning 56
Other 57
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 57
Price 58
Trade 61
Imports 61
Exports 62
Canada 64
Consumption 64
Price 66
Trade 66
Imports 66
Exports 67
Mexico 68
Consumption 69
Price 70
Trade 70
Central and South America 72
Producing companies 72
Salient statistics 72
Perchloroethylene 72
Trichloroethylene 73
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 74
Consumption 75
Price 76
Trade 76
Imports 76
Perchloroethylene 76
Trichloroethylene 77
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 78
Exports 78
Western Europe 79
Producing companies 80
Salient statistics 81
Perchloroethylene 82
Trichloroethylene 83
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 84
Consumption 84
Perchloroethylene 85
Chemical intermediates (precursor) 85
Dry cleaning 86
Surface/metal cleaning 86
Trichloroethylene 87
Chemical intermediates (precursor) 88
Metal cleaning (vapor degreasing) 89
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 89
Chemical intermediates (precursor) 90
Surface cleaning and other uses 90
Price 91
Trade 91
Imports 91
Exports 92
Central and Eastern Europe 93
Producing companies 93
Salient statistics 95
Perchloroethylene 95
Trichloroethylene 96
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 97
Consumption 98
Price 99
Trade 100
Imports 100
Exports 101
Middle East 102
Producing Companies 102
Salient statistics 102
Perchloroethylene 103
Trichloroethylene 104
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 104
Consumption 105
Price 106
Trade 107
Imports 107
Exports 108
Africa 109
Producing companies 109
Salient statistics 109
Perchloroethylene 110
Trichloroethylene 111
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 111
Consumption 112
Price 113
Trade 114
Imports 114
Exports 115
Japan 116
Producing companies 116
Supply and demand 117
Production 117
Consumption 119
Perchloroethylene 121
Trichloroethylene 121
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 122
Price 122
Trade 125
China 126
Producing companies 126
Production 129
Salient statistics 130
Perchloroethylene 130
Trichloroethylene 131
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 131
Consumption 132
Perchloroethylene 133
HFC-125 (1,1,1,2,2- pentafluoroethane) 134
Dry cleaning 134
Other 134
Trichloroethylene 135
HFC-134a 135
Degreasing for metals and electronics 135
Other 135
Price 135
Trade 138
Other Asia 140
Producing companies 140
Production 141
Perchloroethylene 141
Trichloroethylene 141
Consumption 142
Perchloroethylene 142
Trichloroethylene 143
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 144
Price 144
Trade 145
Imports 145
Perchloroethylene 145
Trichloroethylene 146
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 147
Exports 148
Perchloroethylene 148
Trichloroethylene 149
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 150
Oceania 150
Consumption 150
Perchloroethylene 150
Trichloroethylene 151
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 152
Trade 152
Imports 152
Perchloroethylene 152
Trichloroethylene 152
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 153
Exports 153
Perchloroethylene 153
Trichloroethylene 154
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 154
Bibliography 154

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