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Chemical Economics Handbook

Biodegradable Polymers

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary6
Introduction12
Compostability standards13
ASTM standards14
ASTM D640014
ASTM D686814
ASTM D708114
EN standards14
EN 1343214
EN 1499515
ISO standards15
ISO 1708815
ISO 1860615
Bio content test methods15
ASTM D686616
CEN/TS 16137:201116
ISO 1662016
Certifying organizations16
Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI)16
DIN CERTCO17
Japan BioPlastics Association17
United States Department of Agriculture18
Vinçotte18
Sustainability19
Critical issues for biodegradable polymers19
Processing19
Recycling19
Contamination of the post-consumer PET recycle stream20
Oxo-degradable and enzyme-mediated degradable plastics20
Manufacturing processes21
Polybutylene adipate terephthalate21
Polybutylene succinate22
Polybutylene succinate adipate22
Polycaprolactone23
Polyglycolic acid23
Polyhydroxyalkanoates24
Polylactic acid24
Starch-based polymers25
Environmental issues and legislation25
North America25
Solid waste disposal patterns25
Legislation29
Western Europe30
Solid waste disposal patterns30
Legislation33
Central and Eastern Europe33
Asia35
China35
India36
Legislation36
Consumer attitudes and behavior36
Japan36
Legislation36
Consumer attitudes and behavior38
Malaysia38
Philippines38
Taiwan38
Thailand39
Vietnam39
Oceania39
Supply and demand by region39
North America39
Producing companies39
Salient statistics42
Production43
Consumption by type44
Consumption by market45
Food packaging, dishes, and cutlery46
Foam packaging48
Compost bags48
Paper coatings50
Agriculture and horticulture50
Other50
Price52
Trade52
Central and South America54
Producing companies54
Consumption54
Trade54
Western Europe55
Producing companies55
Salient statistics60
Production60
Consumption by type61
Consumption by market63
Food packaging, dishes, and cutlery64
Foam packaging64
Compost bags64
Agriculture and horticulture65
Paper coatings65
Other65
Price66
Trade66
Central and Eastern Europe67
Middle East and Africa68
Asia and Oceania68
Producing companies68
China68
Japan72
Polylactic acid producers and processors74
PBS and PBSA producers76
PHBH, PGA and copolyesters77
Starch- and cellulose-based biodegradable polymer producers78
Nonbiodegradable bio-based polymers and bio-based chemical precursors78
South Korea80
S-EnPol: EnPol® PBS, PBSA, and PBAT81
WILLEAP: leafull®, PBS, PBSA, and PBAT81
Other bioplastic manufacturers81
Nonbiodegradable bioplastic manufacturer: SK Chemical82
Thailand82
PLA83
PBS83
Other biodegradable polymers83
Other Asia and Oceania84
India85
Malaysia86
Taiwan86
Salient statistics88
PLA89
Starch-based polymers90
PHAs90
PBS, PBSA, and PBAT91
Consumption by type91
Consumption by market93
Price94
Trade95
Bibliography95

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