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Chemical Economics Handbook

Ammonia

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary 6
World supply and demand 7
Capacity 9
Production 11
Consumption 13
Price 15
Trade 17
Introduction 19
Manufacturing processes 21
Synthesis gas production 21
Steam reforming 21
Partial oxidation 21
Cryogenic separation 22
Coal gasification 22
Electrolysis 22
Synthesis gas purification 22
Shift conversion 22
Removal of carbon dioxide 23
Removal of residual carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide 23
Ammonia synthesis 23
Trends in synthetic ammonia plant development 23
Ammonia plant retrofits 24
Trends in costs 24
Recovered ammonia 26
Coking by-product 26
Petroleum refinery wastewater 26
Environmental issues 26
Supply and demand by region 27
United States 27
Producing companies 27
Salient statistics 35
Consumption 36
Direct application as fertilizer 38
Downstream products 39
Chemical uses 39
Hydrogen cyanide 39
Caprolactam 39
Acrylonitrile 40
Miscellaneous amines and nitriles 40
Other 40
Industrial-grade ammonia 40
Distribution 40
Price 41
Trade 44
Canada 46
Producing companies 46
Salient statistics 49
Consumption 50
Price 51
Trade 53
Mexico 53
Producing companies 53
Salient statistics 55
Consumption 55
Central and South America 56
Producing companies 56
Salient statistics 65
Production 65
Consumption 66
Trade 68
Western Europe 69
Producing companies 69
Salient statistics 79
Production 80
Consumption 82
Trade 83
Central and Eastern Europe 85
Producing companies 85
Salient statistics 92
Production 93
Consumption 94
Trade 96
Former USSR (Commonwealth of Independent States) 98
Producing companies 98
Salient statistics 110
Production 111
Consumption 112
Trade 114
Middle East 116
Producing companies 116
Salient statistics 124
Production 125
Consumption 126
Trade 128
Africa 130
Producing companies 130
Salient statistics 136
Production 137
Consumption 138
Trade 140
Japan 142
Producing companies 142
Salient statistics 144
Consumption 145
Price 146
Trade 147
China 147
Producing companies 147
Salient statistics 176
Consumption 176
Urea 177
Ammonium bicarbonate 177
Ammonium chloride 178
Ammonium phosphates 178
Nitric acid 178
Ammonium nitrate 178
Ammonium sulfate 179
Acrylonitrile 179
Caprolactam 179
Other 179
Price 179
Trade 180
Southeast Asia 180
Producing companies 180
Salient statistics 188
Production 189
Consumption 190
Trade 193
Southwest Asia 195
Producing companies 195
Salient statistics 207
Production 208
Consumption 208
Trade 210
Oceania 210
Producing companies 210
Salient statistics 213
Production 214
Consumption 214
Trade 216
Bibliography 217

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