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Chemical Economics Handbook

Air Separation Gases

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Summary 8
Industry structure 14
United States 19
Western Europe 21
Japan 23
China 25
Introduction 27
Properties and grades 27
Conversion factors 28
Manufacturing processes 29
Cryogenic distillation of air 34
Adsorption processes 39
Inert gas generation 40
Ammonia dissociation 41
Nitrogen-rich natural gas wells 42
Electrolytic dissociation of water 42
Argon from ammonia plants 42
Other sources of gases 42
Supply and demand by region 44
United States 44
Producing companies 44
Distribution 94
Consumption 98
Oxygen 99
Primary metals production 99
Chemicals 105
Gasification 106
Petroleum refineries 110
Fabricated metal products 112
Health services 112
Clay, glass, and concrete products 114
Pulp and paper 116
Municipal wastewater treatment 121
Ozone for potable water 123
Other 124
Nitrogen 125
Chemicals 125
Primary metals and fabricated metal products 126
Electronics 127
Oil and gas extraction 128
Petroleum refining 131
Food industry 131
Glass 133
Other 136
Argon 138
Fabricated metal products 138
Primary metals industries 140
Other 141
Price 141
Merchant liquid or gaseous products 141
Pipelined or on-site gaseous products 142
Trade 142
Oxygen 142
Nitrogen 145
Argon 148
Canada 151
Producing companies 151
Consumption 157
Price 158
Mexico 158
Central and South America 161
Western Europe 169
Producing companies 169
Capacity 179
Salient statistics 181
Oxygen 181
Nitrogen 182
Argon 183
Production 183
Oxygen 185
Nitrogen 187
Argon 189
Rare gases 191
Distribution 191
Consumption 191
Oxygen 192
Chemical industry 194
Primary metals production 196
Coal and gas liquefaction 196
Health services 197
Fabricated metal products 197
Pulp and paper 197
Petroleum refineries 197
Glass production 198
Water and wastewater treatment 198
Other 198
Nitrogen 199
Gaseous nitrogen 199
Liquid nitrogen 199
Chemical industry 201
Primary metals production 201
Food industry 201
Oil and gas extraction 201
Petroleum refineries 201
Glass production 202
Other 202
Argon 202
Price 202
Oxygen 202
Nitrogen 203
Argon 204
Trade 205
Oxygen 206
Imports 206
Exports 206
Nitrogen 207
Imports 207
Exports 207
Argon 208
Imports 208
Exports 208
Central Europe 209
Producing companies 209
Salient statistics 215
Oxygen 215
Nitrogen 216
Argon 217
Production 217
Oxygen 218
Nitrogen 219
Argon 221
Rare gases 222
Consumption 222
Oxygen 222
Nitrogen 224
Price 225
Oxygen 225
Nitrogen 226
Argon 226
Trade 227
Oxygen 227
Imports 227
Exports 227
Nitrogen 228
Imports 228
Exports 228
Argon 229
Imports 229
Exports 230
Eastern Europe 230
Producing companies 230
Salient statistics 238
Oxygen 238
Nitrogen 239
Production 239
Oxygen 240
Nitrogen 241
Argon 242
Rare gases 242
Consumption 242
Oxygen 242
Nitrogen 245
Argon 246
Price 246
Oxygen 246
Nitrogen 247
Argon 247
Trade 248
Oxygen 248
Imports 248
Exports 248
Nitrogen 249
Imports 249
Exports 249
Argon 250
Imports 250
Exports 250
Middle East 251
Producing companies 251
Salient statistics 256
Oxygen 256
Nitrogen 257
Production 258
Oxygen 259
Nitrogen 259
Consumption 260
Oxygen 260
Nitrogen 262
Trade 263
Oxygen 263
Imports 263
Exports 264
Nitrogen 264
Imports 264
Exports 265
Argon 265
Imports 265
Exports 266
Africa 266
Producing Companies 266
Salient statistics 271
Oxygen 271
Nitrogen 272
Production 273
Oxygen 274
Nitrogen 274
Consumption 275
Oxygen 275
Nitrogen 276
Trade 277
Oxygen 277
Imports 277
Exports 278
Nitrogen 278
Imports 278
Exports 279
Argon 279
Imports 279
Exports 280
Japan 280
Producing companies 280
Production 285
Consumption 286
Oxygen 286
Nitrogen 287
Argon 288
Price 289
Trade 289
China 290
Producing companies 290
Oxygen 305
Nitrogen 306
Argon 307
Consumption 307
Oxygen 307
Primary metals production 308
Coal gasification 308
Fabricated metal products 309
Chemical industry 309
Health services 309
Clay, glass, and concrete products 309
Pulp and paper 310
Water and treatment 310
Nitrogen 310
Chemical industry 310
Primary metals and fabricated metal products 311
Electronics 311
Petroleum refining 311
Food industry 311
Other 311
Argon 311
Price 312
Trade 312
Oxygen 312
Nitrogen 314
Argon 315
Other Asia 317
Producing companies 317
Salient statistics 330
Southwest Asia 330
Northeast Asia 330
Southeast Asia 331
Oceania 332
Trade 332
Oxygen 332
Nitrogen 333
Argon 335
Appendix I—Major nitrogen- or inert gas–consuming chemical processes 337
Appendix II—Historical US salient statistics for oxygen, nitrogen, and argon 340
Oxygen 341
Nitrogen 344
Argon 348
Appendix III—Historical US unit shipments for oxygen, nitrogen, and argon 350
Bibliography 352

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