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Process Economics Program Report 134

Hydrochloric Acid

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

INTRODUCTION1
SUMMARY3
General Aspects3
Technical Aspects 9
Hydrogen Chloride from Chlorine and Hydrogen12
HCl from Salt and Sulfuric Acid by the Mannheim process12
HCl from Salt and Sulfuric Acid by a Fluidized Bed Process 12
HCl from Salt by the Hargreaves Process13
Recovery of HCl from Incineration Gas 13
Recovery of HCl from Spent Pickle Liquor13
INDUSTRY STATUS15
U.S. Production15
World Production15
Markets21
UNIT OPERATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID AND HYDROGEN CHLORIDE29
Absorption29
Adiabatic Absorption29
Absorption with Water Cooling33
Desorptlon40
Heat Transfer48
Adsorption50
Extraction50
Dialysis56
Liquefaction56
Ion Retardation 56
HYDROCHLORIC ACID OR HYDROGEN CHLORIDE FROM CHLORINE AND HYDROGEN59
Chemistry59
Review of Processes60
Equipment 60
Feeds 64
Other Processes for Making HCl from Chlorine 65
Evaluation of the Process for Making HCl from Chlorine and Hydrogen70
Process Description70
Process Discussion77
Cost Estimates78
HYDROCHLORIC ACID FROM ALKALI CHLORIDE 87
Chemistry 87
Review of Processes 88
A Process for the Production of Hydrochloric Acid from Salt by the Mannheim Process92
Process Description 92
Process Discussion 101
Cost Estimates 101
A Process for the Production of Hydrochloric Acid from Salt by a Fluidized Bed Process 106
Process Description 106
Process Discussion 112
Cost Estimates 112
A Process for the Production of Hydrochloric Acid from Salt by the Hargreaves Process 116
Process Description 116
Process Discussion 124
Cost Estimate 124
HCl as a By-Product of Potash Fertilizer Manufacture 124
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE BY-PRODUCED IN CHEMICAL PROCESSES131
Source of Hydrogen Chloride By-Production131
Anhydrous HCl Purification 138
Hydrochloric Acid from By-Produced Hydrogen Chloride and Its Purification 150
Removal of Organic Impurities in Gaseous Hydrogen Chloride by Chlorine Addition and Carbon Adsorption159
Removal of Chlorine and Organic Impurities in Gaseous Hydrogen Chloride by Ethylene Addition and Carbon Adsorption161
Removal of Organic Impurities in Hydrogen Chloride by Fractionation161
Removal of Sulfur Dioxide in Hydrogen Chloride165
Removal of Hydrogen Fluoride in Hydrogen Chloride165
Conversion of Anhydrous Hydrogen Chloride to Hydrochloric Acid by Falling-Film Cooler-Absorption169
Conversion of Anhydrous Hydrogen Chloride to Hydrochloric Acid by Adiabatic Absorption172
Hydrochloric Acid from Impure Hydrogen Chloride172
Anhydrous Hydrogen Chloride from Hydrochloric Acid 175
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE RECOVERED FROM CHLORINE-CONTAINING WASTE PRODUCTS DISPOSAL177
A Process for Recovery of HCl from the Incineration of Chlorine-Containing Wastes177
Process Description 177
Process Discussion 191
Cost Estimates191
Gas from Pyrolysis or Catalytic Oxidation of Waste Chlorinated Compounds192
OTHER PROCESSES FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN CHLORIDE 201
Hydrochloric Acid from Magnesium Chloride201
HCl from Other Sources 202
RECOVERY OF HCl FROM SPENT PICKLE LIQUOR OR SIMILAR SOLUTIONS215
Chemistry 215
Review of Processes 216
A Process for the Recovery of HCl from a Spent Pickle Liquor Based on the Lurgi Fluidized-Bed Process234
Process Description234
Process Discussion240
Cost Estimate240
APPENDIX A DESIGN AND COST BASES 245
APPENDIX B PHYSICAL DATA 247
APPENDIX C KARBATE® HEAT EXCHANGERS 259
CITED REFERENCES 261
PATENT REFERENCES BY COMPANY 289

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