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Process Economics Program Report 148

Costs of Synthesis Gases and Methanol

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

SYNGASES, HYDROGEN, AND METHANOL FROM THE STEAM REFORMING OF NATURAL GAS1
Chemistry of Steam Reforming 4
Discussion of the Assumed Technical Basis 8
Steam Reforming Stage 11
Carbon Dioxide Separatioin 19
Flue Gas Scrubbing 24
Hydrogen Production 24
Methanol Production 25
H2:CO Ratio Adjustment by Separation Processes 30
Values Assigned to Steam 34
Process Description 37
Cases A and B: Syngas Streams with H2:CO Ratios of 3:l and 2:l Obtained by CO2 Addition to Reformer Feed 37
Case C: Hydrogen by Conventional Steam Reforming of Natural Gas (Including CO Shift Stages and Methanation) 44
Case D: Methanol from Natural Gas by ICI Low Pressure Process (High Efficiency Design) 47
Separation Processes for Adjusting H2:CO Ratio 54
Cryogenic Separation by Liquid Methane Wash 54
Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) 55
Tenneco's Cosorb® System56
Monsanto's Prism®' Separators 58
Cost Estimates 59
Basic Cases 59
Syngas H2:CO Ratio Adjustment by H2 Skimming 62
Costs of Syngas Compression 92
Effect of Scale of Operation 98
SYNGASES AND HYDROGEN BY THE PARTIAL OXIDATION OF VACUUM RESIDUE 123
Brief Description of Cases Examined 124
Chemistry 128
Characterization of Partial Oxidation Reactor Performance 129
Brief Review of Processes 132
Partial Oxidation Stage 132
Acid Gas Removal System 134
Sulfur Recovery 135
Process Description 135
Cost Estimates 141
COAL GASIFICATION 149
Historic Development 152
Technical Background 154
General Considerations 154
Variability of Coal 155
Temperature Constraints 159
Gasification Pressure 160
Flow Characteristics 161
Fixed Bed 164
Fluidized Bed 165
Entrained Flow 166
Stoichiometric Considerations 167
Selection of Base Case for Cost Evaluation 178
Base Case Design--Methanol from Coal 182
Overall Plant Design 182
Process Description 191
Process Discussion 195
Gasification 195
Shift, COS Hydrolysis, and Acid Gas Removal 196
Methanol Synthesis and Refining 197
Cost Estimates--Methanol from Coal 198
Capital Investment 198
Production Costs and Product Value 204
ROI and Profitability 206
Discussion of Costs 208
Derived Cost Modules214
Rationale for Cost Allocations 214
Methanol-from-Syngas Unit 216
Syngases of Various H2:CO Ratios, and Hydrogen 217
1. Methanol Syngas from Coal (Module 13) 220
2. Methanol from Coal-Derived Syngas (Module 27) 223
3. Syngas (H2 :CO = 0.75) from Coal (Module 1) 226
4. Syngases H2:CO = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0)from Coal (Modules 2, 7, 8) 231
5. Hydrogen from Coal (Module 22) 234
Conclusions 238
CARBON MONOXIDE SEPARATION FROM SYNGAS 267
Main Features of'separation Modules 271
Cost Estimates 278
CITED REFERENCES 293
PATENT REFERENCES 299

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