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Process Economics Program Report 44B

Advances in Ammonia Technology

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

INTRODUCTION 1-1
SUMMARY 2-1
GENERAL ASPECTS 2-1
TECHNICAL ASPECTS 2-3
Commercial Ammonia Technologies 2-3
Advances in Ammonia Technologies 2-4
Feedstock and Fuel 2-4
Steam Reforming 2-4
CO2 Removal 2-5
Synthesis Catalysts and Synthesis Loop 2-5
Capacity 2-6
Retrofits 2-6
Coal-based Ammonia Production in China 2-7
CO2 Capture from Combustion Flue Gases for Urea Production 2-7
The Uhde Dual Pressure Technology 2-7
The KBR PURIFIERplus Technology 2-7
PROCESS ECONOMICS 2-8
Uhde Dual Pressure Technology 2-8
KBR PURIFIERplus Technology 2-9
CONCLUSIONS 2-11
INDUSTRY STATUS 3-1
GLOBAL SUPPLY AND DEMAND FOR AMMONIA 3-1
Capacity 3-3
Production 3-4
Consumption 3-6
Ammonia Prices 3-7
Trade 3-9
Transportation, Storage, Environmental and Safety Concerns 3-11
GLOBAL MARKET FOR AMMONIA DERIVATIVES 3-12
Nitrogen Fertilizer 3-12
Industrial Uses 3-13
UNITED STATES 3-14
Consumption 3-16
Direct Application as Fertilizer 3-18
Chemical Uses 3-19
Other 3-19
Distribution 3-21
Trade 3-22
CHINA 3-23
Consumption 3-25
Urea 3-25
Ammonium Bicarbonate 3-25
Ammonium Chloride 3-25
Ammonium Phosphates 3-26
Nitric Acid 3-26
Ammonium Nitrate 3-26
Ammonium Sulfate 3-26
Direct Application as Fertilizer 3-27
Chemical Uses 3-27
Trade 3-27
MIDDLE EAST 3-28
NATURAL GAS FEEDSTOCK 3-29
United States 3-30
China 3-31
TECHNOLOGY REVIEW OF AMMONIA PRODUCTION 4-1
CHEMISTRY AND GENERIC PROCESS STEPS 4-1
Desulfurization 4-2
Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) 4-2
Partial oxidation (PO) 4-4
Autothermal Reforming (ATR) 4-4
Water-Gas Shift 4-5
Removal of Carbon Dioxide 4-5
Methanation 4-7
Compression 4-7
Ammonia Synthesis Loop 4-7
FEEDSTOCKS 4-10
AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY 4-12
Current Commercial Ammonia Processes 4-12
Uhde 4-12
KBR 4-16
Haldor Topsoe 4-24
Ammonia Casale 4-28
Johnson Matthey Leading Concept Ammonia (LCA) Process 4-32
Linde Ammonia Concept (LAC) Process 4-35
CATALYST 4-36
Catalyst Poisons 4-36
Ammonia Synthesis Catalysts 4-39
Alternative Ammonia Synthesis Catalysts 4-42
ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL AND OPTIMIZATION 4-45
ENERGY EFFICIENCY 4-46
COAL-BASED AMMONIA PRODUCTION IN CHINA 4-48
Gasification 4-49
Sulfur Removal 4-50
CO Shift 4-50
CO2 Removal 4-50
Trace Element Removal 4-50
Ammonia Synthesis Loop 4-51
CO2 CAPTURE FROM COMBUSTION FLUE GASES 4-51
AMMONIA BY THE UHDE DUAL PRESSURE PROCESS 5-1
PROCESS REVIEW 5-1
Historical Background 5-1
Scale Up Considerations 5-2
Uhde Dual Pressure Process Technical Features 5-3
PROCESS DESCRIPTION 5-5
Feed Gas Preheating and Desulfurization 5-6
Primary Reforming 5-6
Process Air Preparation 5-6
Secondary Reforming 5-7
Shift Conversion 5-7
Carbon Dioxide Removal 5-7
Methanation 5-8
Compression and Ammonia Synthesis 5-8
Ammonia Refrigeration, Steam and Cooling Water Systems 5-10
PROCESS DISCUSSION 5-10
COST ESTIMATES 5-17
Capital Costs 5-17
Production Costs 5-21
AMMONIA BY THE KBR PURIFIERPLUS PROCESS 6-1
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 6-1
KBR Purifier Ammonia Process 6-2
KBR Reforming Exchanger System (KRES) 6-4
Tube Size 6-5
Catalyst Shapes, Size and Testing 6-5
Improved KRES Design 6-6
KRES in Large-Scale Ammonia Plants 6-7
PROCESS DESCRIPTION 6-7
Free Gas Preheating and Desulfurization 6-8
Process Air Preparation 6-8
Reforming (Pre-reforming and KRES) 6-8
Shift Conversion 6-9
Carbon Dioxide Removal 6-10
Methanation 6-10
Drying 6-11
Cryogenic Purification 6-11
Compression 6-11
Ammonia Synthesis Recovery 6-12
Refrigeration and Ammonia Product Separation 6-13
Steam and Cooling Water Systems 6-13
PROCESS DISCUSSION 6-13
COST ESTIMATES 6-24
Capital Costs 6-24
Production Costs 6-26
APPENDIX A: PATENT SUMMARY TABLES A-1
APPENDIX B: DESIGN AND COST BASES B-1
APPENDIX C: CITED REFERENCES C-1
APPENDIX D: PATENT REFERENCES BY COMPANY D-1
APPENDIX E: PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM E-1

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