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Chemical Economics Handbook

C2 Chlorinated Solvents

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary7
Summary8
Industry overview11
Perchloroethylene13
Trichloroethylene14
1,1,1-Trichloroethane14
Recent and future trends14
Manufacturing processes16
PCE and/or TCE by chlorination of C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons16
PCE and/or TCE by oxychlorination of C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons16
PCE and TCE by chlorination of ethylene and thermal dehydrochlorination of product17
PCE (and CCl4) by chlorination of C1-C3 hydrocarbons or their partially chlorinated derivatives17
PCE and TCE by chlorination of acetylene18
1,1,1-TCA from EDC via vinyl chloride18
1,1,1-TCA from EDC via 1,1,2-trichloroethane19
1,1,1-TCA by chlorination of ethane19
Stabilization20
Environmental issues and regulations21
Regulations governing occupational exposure21
United States21
Western Europe22
China23
Japan23
Regulations governing atmospheric pollution23
United States23
Perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene23
Dry cleaning23
Metal degreasing25
1,1,1-Trichloroethane25
Canada26
Western Europe26
China26
Japan27
Other US regulations affecting C2 chlorinated solvents28
Environmental protocols28
Montreal Protocol and ozone depletion28
Kyoto Protocol and global warming29
Montreal Protocol and climate protection (Kigali Amendment)31
Impact on fluorocarbons32
United States32
Phaseout schedule32
Reclamation and reuse34
Europe34
China37
CFC phaseout37
HCFC phaseout38
HFC phasedown39
Japan39
Developing countries41
Supply and demand by region42
United States42
Producing companies42
Production42
Salient statistics43
Perchloroethylene43
Trichloroethylene43
1,1,1-Trichloroethane44
Consumption45
Perchloroethylene46
Chemical intermediates (precursor)46
Metal cleaning48
Dry cleaning and textile processing52
Other52
Trichloroethylene53
Chemical intermediates (precursor)53
Metal cleaning53
Other54
1,1,1-Trichloroethane54
Price55
Trade56
Imports56
Exports58
Canada59
Consumption59
Price60
Trade60
Imports60
Exports61
Mexico62
Consumption62
Price63
Trade64
Central and South America65
Producing companies65
Salient statistics65
Perchloroethylene65
Trichloroethylene67
1,1,1-Trichloroethane68
Consumption69
Price69
Trade69
Imports69
Perchloroethylene69
Trichloroethylene70
1,1,1-Trichloroethane71
Exports71
Western Europe71
Producing companies71
Salient statistics72
Perchloroethylene73
Trichloroethylene74
1,1,1-Trichloroethane75
Consumption76
Perchloroethylene76
Chemical intermediates (precursor)77
Dry cleaning78
Surface/metal cleaning78
Trichloroethylene78
Chemical intermediates (precursor)79
Metal cleaning (vapor degreasing)80
Other80
1,1,1-Trichloroethane80
Chemical intermediates (precursor)81
Surface cleaning and other uses81
Price82
Trade82
Imports82
Exports83
Central and Eastern Europe84
Producing companies84
Salient statistics84
Perchloroethylene85
Trichloroethylene86
1,1,1-Trichloroethane86
Consumption87
Price88
Trade88
Imports88
Exports89
Middle East90
Producing companies90
Salient statistics90
Perchloroethylene90
Trichloroethylene91
1,1,1-Trichloroethane92
Consumption92
Price93
Trade94
Imports94
Exports94
Africa95
Producing companies95
Salient statistics95
Perchloroethylene95
Trichloroethylene96
1,1,1-Trichloroethane96
Consumption97
Price98
Trade98
Imports98
Exports99
China99
Producing companies99
Production 102
Salient statistics 103
Perchloroethylene 103
Trichloroethylene 103
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 104
Consumption 105
Perchloroethylene 106
HFC-125 and CFC-113 106
Dry cleaning 107
Other 107
Trichloroethylene 107
HFC-134a and CFC-113 107
Degreasing for metals and electronics 107
Other 108
Price 108
Trade 110
Japan 112
Producing companies 112
Supply and demand 112
Production 113
Consumption 114
Perchloroethylene 116
Trichloroethylene 117
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 117
Price 118
Trade 120
Other Asia 121
Producing companies 121
Production 122
Perchloroethylene 122
Trichloroethylene 122
Consumption 123
Perchloroethylene 123
Trichloroethylene 124
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 124
Price 125
Trade 126
Imports 126
Perchloroethylene 126
Trichloroethylene 127
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 127
Exports 128
Perchloroethylene 128
Trichloroethylene 129
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 129
Oceania 130
Consumption 130
Perchloroethylene 130
Trichloroethylene 130
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 131
Trade 131
Imports 131
Perchloroethylene 131
Trichloroethylene 132
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 132
Exports 132
Perchloroethylene 132
Trichloroethylene 133
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 133
Bibliography 134

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