Published: January 1995
This report updates the utilities costs previously developed in PEP Report 136, also titled Plant Utilities Costs (September 1980). The previous report evaluated four quality grades of water, steam at three different pressures, electricity prices in several regions of the United States, investment and operating costs for three cases of cogeneration, and inert gas production. We have added in the present report the capital investments and operating costs for refrigeration, high-temperature hot oil heating, and compressed plant air. The estimated costs for each utility are tabulated for three or more capacities; these costs are then graphically correlated to permit interpolation/extrapolation.
The report also discusses new technologies in providing those plant utilities, energy price trends, air emission control limits for steam boilers and fired-heaters, and cogeneration economics.
The utilities costs developed in this report are useful to process engineers, project planners, and utilities engineers, not only in the petrochemical industry sector but in all manufacturing industries where plant utilities are essential parts of all production operations.