Published: July 1975
This report covers current technology and costs for desulfurization of petroleum fractions ranging from naphtha to residuals.The scope of the current report was extended beyond that of Report 47 to include deep desulfurization and hydrocracking. The term deep desulfurization refers to the removal of 90 to nearly 100% of the sulfur contained in the petroleum fraction. This corresponds to an average product sulfur level of 25 ppm in naphthas, 0.1 wt% in gas oils, and 0.3 wt% in residual fuel oils. These low sulfur contents are dictated by increasingly stringent government regulations.
Hydrocracking is aimed primarily at producing naphthas or distillates from gas oil or residuum. In hydrocracking, desulfurization is secondary; nevertheless, desulfurization results. Patents covering the hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline and the saturation of various olefinic fractions are also reviewed in the report. Crude oil produced in the United States, Nigeria, and Libya is relatively low in sulfur, while that originating in the Middle East contains as much as 4% sulfur. The economics presented in this report are based on the desulfurization of fractions produced from Kuwait crude oil.