Published: April 1975
This report concerns fermentation processes for the production of citric acid, ethanol, gluconic acid and gluconates, and itaconic acid. Fermentation processes using various carbohydrates and other carbon sources (such as hydrocarbons for citric acid) are included in the reviews of processes, but only processes using carbohydrates are studied in detail and, of these, only certain commercialized processes are evaluated with respect to economics.
Process information was derived mainly from technical journals, reference books, patents, and equipment suppliers. Information on the industry status was assembled principally from publications and industrial sources. Reviews on the biochemistry and properties are based on reference books and technical journals.