Published: April 1981
The processes for making aniline by hydrogenation and by amination of phenol are updated. The former process is more economical than the latter under most conditions. Another process, using iron reduction, is evaluated. This process is economic if the coproduced iron oxide is sold as pigment. Other processes for making aniline are discussed.
Two processes for making nitrobenzene, a precursor of aniline, are evaluated. The newly developed adiabatic nitration process has some cost advantage over the conventional nitration process.
Several important aniline derivatives are evaluated: N,N-dimethylaniline made from methanol by a liquid phase process, N-ethylaniline and N,N-diethylaniline jointly made from ethanol by a gas phase process, o-ethylaniline and 2,6-diethylaniline, jointly made from ethylene by a batch process, and diphenylamine from aniline condensation. Other derivatives of aniline are described.