Published: March 1974
Products evaluated in this report include alpha olefin Sulfonates (AOS), sodium alkane Sulfonates (SAS, by sulfoxidation of n-paraffins), primary alcohol ethoxylates and ethoxysulfates, and secondary alcohol ethoxylates and ethoxysulfates.
In addition to updating the technology and cost of these products, this report evaluates processes to produce SAS by addition of sodium bisulfite to alpha olefins, to produce alkylsulfates by sulfation of primary alcohols, and to produce soap by neutralization of fatty acids. These aliphatic surfactants are considered to be candidates for the so-called "third generation" detergents, because they are biodegradable more completely and rapidly than linear alkylate Sulfonates (LAS) and may replace LAS in the future, depending on the degree of concern over detergent water pollution.
For any of the new surfactants to be successful in replacing LAS, its cost should be comparable to that of LAS. However, the capital cost and production cost of LAS are not readily available from the public literature, and therefore, to develop cost information as well as technical information to compare with those of aliphatic surfactants, a typical process to produce LAS starting from n-paraffins and benzene is also included in this report.
The technology and cost of producing the raw materials for these surfactants have been discussed in Process Economics Program Report s No. 12 and 12A on alpha olefin Sulfonates, No. 27 on linear higher alcohols, No. 42 on fatty acids, and No. 45 on n-paraffins.