Process Economics Program Report 44B
Advances in Ammonia Technology
Published: November 2009
Although fundamental ammonia-manufacturing technologies have not radically changed in the last ten to fifteen years, numerous technological changes and improvements have taken place in processing technologies, aiming for increased energy efficiencies and, of late, for higher capital productivity and improved competitive profit margins from lower operating costs. Most of the above advantages are being achieved through development and implementation of better process conditions and more efficient equipment design.
In the last decade, several improved and more efficient ammonia technologies have already been commercialized worldwide by major licensors including Haldor Topsoe, KBR, Uhde and Ammonia Casale.
This PEP report provides an overview of ammonia technology developments in catalyst, process and hardware technologies since PEP Report 44A, Ammonia, issued in 1980. The report then develops process economics for production from the most common type of ammonia feedstock, natural gas. The report will also highlight the major hallmarks of the technologies, along with the current commercial picture for the ammonia industry
Detailed technology descriptions and cost analyses of two current-day ammonia technologies, the Uhde Dual Pressure process and the KBR PURIFIERplus process, are presented.