Animal Feeds: Phosphate Supplements
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Published: January 2013
Phosphate chemicals are used commercially in fertilizers, animal feeds and industrial products, and as additives in food. Overall, animal feed–grade phosphates are estimated to account for only 5% of world phosphate consumption. The largest applications for phosphates are agricultural fertilizers (80%), detergents (12%) and specialty applications (3%). This report focuses on their use as feed supplements for livestock, poultry and pets.
Overall growth for these products is forecast at 2.7% annually during 2012–2017, led by monocalcium phosphate (MCP) at 3.8%, dicalcium phosphate (DCP) at 2.3% and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) at 1.6%. In 2012, MCP and DCP accounted for 91.7% of world feed-grade calcium phosphate usage, while TCP accounted for the remaining 8.3%. A blend of MCP and monodicalcium phosphate (MDCP) is growing in importance because of its higher P content. It provides a higher biological value (digestibility) and is more compatible with science-based improvements in animal genetics and nutrition. MCP results in faster-growing animals requiring less feed.
The following pie chart shows world consumption of feed-grade calcium phosphates:
The following key factors determine the level of consumption of organic and inorganic phosphate supplements:
- Production levels of poultry, pork, beef, milk and eggs
- The differing nutrient requirements of poultry, swine and cattle, depending upon the type of animal, its life stage and its purpose
- The price and availability of the feed ingredients used to meet the energy, protein, phosphorus and calcium requirements of the different animals
Consumption of inorganic calcium phosphates has been declining in recent years in developed countries in part as a result of the following:
- Increased cost of inorganic feed phosphates
- Increased phytase consumption
- Usage of other forms of protein in feed diets
On the other hand, calcium phosphate consumption has been growing in developing countries in part as a result of the following:
- Increased disposable income
- Increased consumption of meat
Forecast growth in the world consumption of MCP is led by China at 10.3%, followed by Central and South America at 5.0%, the United States at 3.0%, and Africa and the Middle East at 3.0% annually during 2012–2017. The United States is the leading consumer at almost 37%, followed by China at about 16%, Central and Eastern Europe at approximately 12.5%, Western Europe at 11.0%, and Africa and the Middle East at about 8.5%.
DCP consumption has been declining, particularly in the United States, where decreasing amounts of DCP are produced, but being replaced by monodicalcium phosphate (MDCP). MDCP contains 40–60% MCP, 25–40% DCP, and the remainder noncalcium phosphates.
Growth in the consumption of TCP is forecast at 1.6% annually during 2012–2017. Central and Eastern Europe is the leading consumer at about 40%, the United States at almost 22%, China at about 17%, Japan at about 13%, and Central and South America at 9.5%. Growth will be led by China at 10.0% and Central and South America at 2.0% annually during 2012–2017. Consumption in most other regions is declining. Most of the consumption is for poultry.